Archive for December, 2016

Procedures for 12/16/16

Procedures for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV class (12/16/16)

Objectives:  I can showcase my oral proficiency in taking an oral exam.

Homework: Culture Research project is due on Thursday, 12/22/16.

Procedures:

  1.  Complete all oral exam, performance tasks and retake quizzes by the end of today.

 

Procedures for MS 5P Chinese I class (12/16/16)

Objectives: 1) I can sight read sentences.  2) I can name family members and introduce family members.

Homework: Study over winter break for midterm on 1/5 and 1/6.

Procedures:

  1.  Take one copy of Review Sounds2 handout.  Return all papers (test, skit, character worksheet).  (Marina, Malina, Reyna, Corey) talk to Ms. Chang, please.  Take one netbook.
  2. 1) Teach Review Sounds2 sentences #1-#5.  2)  Teach (姐姐, 妹妹, 家, 有, 个).
  3.  Christmas song singing.

 

Procedures for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese (12/16/16)

Objectives: 1) I can talk about myself in Chinese.  2) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chinese zodiac animals.

Homework: N/A

Procedures:

  1.  1) Pass out and go over animals handout.  2) Teach (xi huan).  3)  Write sentence #7.  4) Read sentences #1-#7.  Collect.
  2. 1) Video: Chinese zodiac animals.  2) Culture reading: Chinese zodiac animal signs.

Procedures for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/16/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean Theorem to solve real-life problems.

Homework: N/A

Procedure:

  1.  Return quiz papers.  2) Pair work: Team challenges.

Uncategorized on December 16th, 2016

Procedures for 12/15/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/15/16)

Objectives: 1) I can talk about dining out at a restaurant. 2) I can prepare for my oral exam.
功课: 1) 星期五有第二课口试. 2) Culture research project is due at 11:59 p.m., Thursday, 12/22/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Turn in your Lesson Two character worksheet. Take one copy o Lesson Three character worksheet. 2) Continue Lesson Two chapter test. 3) Review oral exam questions.
2. Seat work: find character definitions.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/15/16)

Objectives: 1) I can present a skit with a partner. 2) I can name family members.
Homework: Complete character writing assignment.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Kate, Reyna, Malina) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Study guide for mid-term will be e-mailed to you over winter break. Make sure you study over the break. 6A WL meeting. 2) Skit presentation.
2. Teach (爸爸, 妈妈,哥哥,弟弟).

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/15/16)

Objectives: 1) I can talk about myself in Chinese. 2) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chiense signature food and fast food in China. 3) I can explore tangram game.
Homework: N/A
Procedure:
1. 1) (J.J., Tyshuan) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Teach (shang, nian ji). 3) Write sentence #6. Read sentences #1-#6.

2. 1) Video clips: tofu / roast duck / hot pot. Culture reading: 1) Fast food in China.

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/15/16)

Objectives: I can showcase my mastery of applying Pythagorean to calculate distance between points.
Homework: 1) i-Ready cycle: 12/12-12/18. 2) POW#12 is due today.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return H/W papers. (Sofia#1, Jesse#1+#N, Anthony#1+#N / Kate, Jake, Renee, Alyssa–#N / T.J. + Grant) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Clarify a few misconception from unit #9 worksheets.
2. Quiz #9.  2) Complete all work (i-Ready, POW, worksheets).

Front Page on December 15th, 2016

Procedures for 12/14/15

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/14/16)

Objectives: I can prepare for my chapter test.
功课: 1) 星期四有第二课口试. 2) Culture research project is due at 11:59 p.m., Thursday, 12/22/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Turn in your Lesson Two character worksheet. 2) Lesson Two chapter test.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/14/16)

Objectives: 1) I can sight read pinyin sentences accurately and fluently with perfect intonation and pace. 2) I can prepare for skit presentation.
Homework: Skit presentation: tomorrow.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Reyna, Kate) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Write down name for Thursday/Friday E/I retake. 2) Sight read pinyin sentences.
2. Seat work: 1) Rehearse your skit with your partner.

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/14/16)

Objectives: 1) I can talk about myself in Chinese. 2) I can gain culture knowledge and explore finger guessing game.
Homework: N/A
Procedure:
1. 1) Review English date format. Compare Chinese date format. 2) Write sentence #5. 3) Read sentences #1-#5.
2. 1) Culture reading: Finger Guessing Game. 2) Game time.

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/14/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean to calculate distance between points.
Homework: 1) i-Ready cycle: 12/12-12/18. 2) POW#12 is due tomorrow. 3) MathXL is due tomorrow. 4) Unit #9 quiz: tomorrow. 5) Unit #9: practice worksheet #M is due.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return quiz papers. Recognition time (Jimmy, Alyssa) (Sofia, Lily, Connor, Shawn, Maddie) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Clarify a few misconception from unit #9 worksheets.

2. Seat work: 1) Study guide. 2) i-Ready. 3) POW#12. 4) Math XL. 5) Worksheet #M.

Front Page on December 14th, 2016

Procedures for 12/13/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/13/16)

Objectives: I can prepare for my chapter test.
功课: 1) 星期三考第二课。2) 星期四有第二课口试. 3) Go over answer key to listening activities at the end of the class period tomorrow. 4) Culture research project is due at 11:59 p.m., Thursday, 12/22/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return papers. Take one netbook.
2. 1) Work on Study Guide problems (listening, reading, writing) independently. 2) Go over answer key at the end of class period.
3) Study session.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/13/16)

Objectives: I can ask and answer simple conversation questions.
Homework: 1) Reading pinyin sentences: Wednesday, 12/14/16. 2) Skit presentation: Thursday, 12/15/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Reyna) talks to Ms. Chang, please. Recognition time (Jerry, Jakub, Kinga, Tina, Maraina) Captains check Lesson Six definitions. Model oral exam cycles. Must complete your oral exam during E/I time today. 2) Lesson Five oral exam.
2. Seat work: 1) Practice with your partner conversation questions + pinyin sentences + 2) rehearse skit.

Front Page on December 13th, 2016

Procedures for 12/12/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/12/16)

Objectives: 1) I can prepare for chapter test. 2) I can present a skit with a partner.
功课: 1) 星期三考第二课。2) 星期四第二课口试。3) Work on culture research project.
Procedure:
1. 1) Get a netbook. (1P: Joanna; 2P: Shannon) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Complete all makeup and retakes by this Friday. Ms. Chang is available from 1-3 p.m. at MS tomorrow. Return quiz papers. Check ProgressBook for accuracy. 2) Go over Study Guide. 3) Skit presentation.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts skit presentation <=> 1) Listening activities + reading + writing. 2) Culture search project.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/12/16)

Objectives: 1) I can showcase my mastery of identifying and stating ownership of school supplies. 2) I can prepare for my chapter test oral exam and skit presentation.
Homework: 1) Review Sounds1 sight-reading exam: Wednesday, 12/14/16. 2) Lesson Two oral exam: Tuesday, 12/13/16. 3) Lesson Six character definitions.
Procedure:
1. 1) Turn in your Lesson Five character worksheet. (Nick, Joe, Julianna/Elizabeth) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Take one copy of Lesson Six character worksheet. 2) Lesson Two chapter test.

2. Seat work: 1) Lesson Six character definitions. 2) Practice with a partner conversation questions + pinyin sentences + rehearse skit.

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/12/16)

Objectives: 1) I can showcase my mastery of knowing Chinese counting principle.  2) I can talk about myself in Chinese.
Homework: Practice reading sentences #1-#4
Procedure:
1. 1) (Marissa, Tyshaun) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Teach (baba, mama, ge ge, didid, meimei, jiejie, he, liang) + Write sentence #4. 3) Go over tips for taking quiz #1. 4) Quiz #1.

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/12/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean to calculate distance between points.
Homework: 1) i-Ready cycle: 12/12-12/18. 2) POW#12 is due on Thursday, 12/15/16. 3) MathXL unit #9 “Finding distance between points” is due on 12/14/16. 4) Unit #9 quiz: Thursday, 12/15. 5) Unit #9: practice worksheet #1 + #N is due today. 6) Unit #9: practice worksheet #M is due Wednesday.

Procedure:
1. 1) Return papers / treat time (Renee, Jacob, Jesse). No pre-algebra class tomorrow. No i-Ready over the winter break. Treat will be given to whoever wins the contest of i-Ready, though. 2) Clarify a few confusing problems.

2. Seat work: 1) i-Ready. 2) POW#12. 3) MathXL. 4) Unit #9 WSheets #1, #N and #M.

Front Page on December 12th, 2016

Procedures for 12/9/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/9/16)

Objectives: 1) I can sing a Chinese song. 2) I can present a skit with a partner. 3) I can showcase my mastery of Lesson Two vocabulary.
功课: 1) 星期天晚上电影作业到期。2) 下星期三考第二课。3) Work on culture research project.
Procedure:
1. 1) Get a netbook. (Abigail) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Skit presentation.
2. 1) 生字小考。2) 自由时间: Culture search project <=> Singing a song.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/9/16)

Objectives: 1) I can sight read sentences in pinyin fluently and accurately. 2) I can prepare my chapter test.
Homework: 1) Review Review Sounds1 #21-#24. 2) Lesson Two chapter test: Monday, 12/12/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Turn in your skit printout and checklist (1 set per pair), please. (Nick, Joe) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Captains check completion of Grammar Corrections Worksheet. Vote for testing date. 2) Go over Lesson Two chapter test study guide. 3) Go over Grammar Corrections worksheet. 4) Quick review (#1-#20). 5) Teach Review Sounds1 handout #21-#24. 6) Read textbook pages 32-35.
2. Seat work: 1) VC activities. 2) Practice with your partner conversation questions + pinyin sentences +
rehearse skit.

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/9/16)

Objectives: 1) I can gain cultural knowledge about Great Wall of China. 2) I can talk about myself in Chinese. 3) I can explore origami.
Homework: Quiz #1: Monday, 12/12/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Marissa) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Teach (jia, you, ge ren) + Write sentence #3. 3) Go over tips for quiz #1. 4) origami time. Check out names for grade.
2. Video clips: The Great Wall of China / drone in Great Wall of China.

 

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/9/16)

Objectives: 1) I can showcase my mastery of Pythagorean theorem in solving math problems. 2) I can apply Pythagorean to calculate distance between points.
Homework: 1) i-Ready cycle: 12/5-12/11. 2) POW#12 is due on Thursday, 12/15/16. 3) MathXL unit #9 “Finding distance between points” is due on 12/14/16. 4) Unit #9 quiz: Thursday, 12/15. 5) Unit #9: practice worksheet #1 + #N is due next Monday, 12/12/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return papers. POW #12 has been posted in Google Classroom. No pre-algebra class next Tuesday, 12/13/16 (field trip). 2) Highlight a few key points. Quiz #9.
2. Seat work: 1) i-Ready. 2) POW#12. 3) MathXL. 4) Unit #9 WS.

Front Page on December 9th, 2016

Procedures for 12/8/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/8/16)

Objectives: 1) I can sing a Chinese song. 2) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chinese elementary school and societal issues through viewing a movie. 3) I can prepare for my chapter test.
功课: 1) 明天有生字小考。2) 明天要表演 (biao3 yan3)短剧。3) Work on culture research project. 4) Song singing closes at the end of tomorrow.
Procedure:
1. 1) Writing practice. 2) Movie time.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts song-singing task <=> 1) Practice speaking questions. 2) Rehearse your skit. 3) Culture search project. 4)Answer movie unit comprehension questions.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/8/16)

Objectives: 1) I can ask and answer questions to confirm ownership of school supplies. 2) I can sight read sentences in pinyin fluently and accurately. 3) I can create a skit with a partner.
Homework: 1) Review Review Sounds1 sentences #16-#20. 2) VC activities. 3) Skit is due tomorrow. 4) Grammar Corrections worksheet is due tomorrow.
Procedure:
1. 1) Get a netbook and a copy of worksheet. (Nick) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Study Guide has been e-mailed to you. Take one copy of Lesson Five Grammar Corrections worksheet. 2) Quick review (#1-#15). 3) Teach Review Sounds1 handout #16-#20. 4) Writing practice.
2. Seat work: 1) Grammar Corrections worksheet. 2) VC activities. 3) Practice with your partner conversation questions + pinyin sentences + rehearse skit.

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/8/16)

Objectives: 1) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chinese noodles and fast food in China. 2) I can talk about myself in Chinese. 3) I can count from zero to one hundred. 4) I can explore origami.
Homework: Review counting principle.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return test #2 papers. 2) Teach (sui) + Write sentence #2. 3) Count from zero to one hundred in Chinese. 4) origami time.
2. Video clips: Chinese noodles + How to cook dumplings.

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/8/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean theorem to solve math problems.
Homework: 1) i-Ready cycle: 12/5-12/11. 2) Unit #8 quiz: tomorrow. 3) MathXL unit #9 “Finding distance between points” is due on 12/14/16. 4) Unit #9 quiz: Thursday, 12/15.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return papers. Unit #9 has been posted in Google Classroom. MathXL #9 is available now. (Tyler, Hudson, Connor*, Ian*, Jimmy, Shawn) talk to Ms. Chang, please.
2. Seat work: 1) i-Ready. 2) MathXL. 3) Unit #8 Study guide. Check answer key. 4) Unit #9 practice worksheet #1.

Front Page on December 8th, 2016

Procedures for 12/7/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/7/16)

Objectives: 1) I can sing a Chinese song. 2) I can create a skit dialogue with a partner. 3) I can prepare for my chapter test.
功课: 1) 短剧今天晚上十一点五十九分到期. 星期五表演 (biao3yan3: perform). 2) Work on culture research project. 3) 电影问题:星期日晚上十一点五十九分到期。
Procedure:
1. 1) Take a netbook. 2) Round robin reading textbook pages 37 / 39. Teach bottom of textbook page 39. 2) Speaking practice. 3) Writing practice.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts song-singing task <=> 1) Practice speaking questions. 2) Finalize your skit. 3) Work on your culture research project.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/7/16)

Objectives: 1) I can ask and answer questions to confirm ownership of school supplies. 2) I can sight read sentences in pinyin fluently and accurately. 3) I can create a skit with a partner.
Homework: 1) Review Review Sounds1 sentences #11-#15. 2) VC activities. 3) Skit is due on this Friday.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Joe, Nick) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Quick review (#1-#10). 2) Teach Review Sounds1 handout #11-#15. 4) Teach (知道, 大概, 谢谢,不客气). 5) Go over Conversation questions 4th round.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts quiz #8 <=> 1) VC activities. 2) Practice with your partner conversation questions + pinyin sentences + skit.

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/7/16)

Objectives: 1) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chinese calligraphy, and lucky and unlucky numbers. 2) I can talk about myself in Chinese.
Homework: Review counting principle.
Procedure:
1. 1) Preview Quiz #1 format / paper. Take one copy of oral presentation handout 2) Introduce oral presentation handout format. 3) Write sentence #1. 4) Introduce / pass around quiz #1 paper. 5) Test #2.
2. 1) Video clips: Chinese calligraphy + Chinese numbers. 2) Culture reading: Chinese lucky and unlucky numbers.

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/7/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean theorem to solve math problems.
Homework: 1) i-Ready cycle: 12/5-12/11. 2) Turn in Unit #8 worksheet #N + M at the end of today. 3) Work on study guide tomorrow.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return papers. (Bobby) talk to Ms. Chang, please. How do you redo MathXL homework? 2) Clarify / Model problems from worksheet #N + #M.

2. Seat work: 1) i-Ready. 2) Worksheet #N + #M. 4) Check answer key to worksheet #2.

Front Page on December 7th, 2016

Procedures for 12/6/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/6/16)

Objectives: 1) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chinese elementary school and societal issues through viewing a movie. 2) I can sing a Chinese song. 3) I can create a skit dialogue with a partner.
功课: 1) Know all learned vocabulary / phrases for writing practice tomorrow. 2) Complete movie comprehension questions ASAP. Movie will be done on Thursday.
Procedure:
1. 1) Get a netbook. (Jenna, Abigail + Ian; 2P: Shannon*, Shaan) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Check ProgressBook for grade accuracy. 2) Go over Lesson Two Google Docs speaking tasks.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts song-singing task <=> 1) Practice speaking questions. 2) Finalize your skit. 3) Work on culture research project.
3. Movie time.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/6/16)

Objectives: 1) I can showcase my mastery of sight reading multi-syllable phrase fluently and accurately. 2) I can ask and answer questions to confirm ownership of school supplies or to identify school supplies.  3) I can sight read sentences in pinyin fluently and accurately. 4) I can prepare for my chapter test.
Homework: 1) Review Review Sounds1 sentences #6-#10. 2) VC activities. 3) Skit is due on this Friday, 12/9/16 (different partner, please). Performance starts from Thursday, 12/15/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Take one copy of Lessons 4 and 5 Skit handout. Take one netbook. (Joe, Michael) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Quick review (#1-#5). 2) Go over answer key to culture reading exit slip. 3) Go over skit requirements. 4) Teach Review Sounds1 handout #6-#10. 5) Conversation questions Q/A.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts quiz #8 <=> 1) VC activities. 2) Skit. 3) Practice with your partner conversation questions + pinyin sentences.

 

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/6/16)

Objectives: 1) I can gain cultural knowledge about Chinese calligraphy, and lucky and unlucky numbers.  2) I can understand  Chinese counting principle.  3) I can count from zero to one hundred.
Homework: 1) Test #2: tomorrow. 2) Quiz #1 (connecting the dots): Monday, 12/12/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Take one copy of Chinese number table. Return 12 number characters writing papers. (Tyshaun**, Malissa, Brianna, Dominic) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 2) Pretest. 2) Teach Chinese counting principle. Count from zero to one hundred.
2. Culture reading: Chinese lucky and unlucky numbers.

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/6/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean theorem to solve math problems.
Homework: 1) MathXL (Explaining the Pythagorean Theorem, 12 questions) is due today. 2) New i-Ready cycle: 12/5-12/11. 3) Turn in Unit #8 worksheet #N and M tomorrow.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Sofia, Tommy, Ian* / Mary…) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Return papers. 2) Clarify problems from worksheet #1. Redo for credit, please.
2. Seat work: 1) i-Ready. 2) MathXL. 3) Worksheet #N + #M.

Front Page on December 6th, 2016

Procedures for 12/5/16

Procedure for HS 1P/2P Chinese IV Class (12/5/16)

Objectives: 1) I can describe the available amenities around my living quarter. 2) I can sing a Chinese song.
功课: 1) Lesson Two vocabulary quiz: Friday, 12/9/16. 2) Lesson Two chapter test: Wednesday, 12/14/16. 3) Movie unit comprehension questions: 11:59 p.m., Sunday, 12/11/16. 4) Skit (短剧duǎn jù) is due by 11:59 p.m., Wednesday, 12/7/16. 5) Culture research project: Friday, 12/16/16.

Procedure:
1. 1) Get a netbook. 2) Inform Ms. Chang of your intention of retaking authentic materials quiz. 3) (Grace, Abigail, Sydney, Rianna, Ian, Hanna; 2P: Shannon*, Shaan) talk to Ms. Chang, please. 4) Read / Teach page 39.

2. While Ms. Chang conducts song-singing quiz <=> 1) Speaking practice. 2) Pair with a partner for skit.

 

Procedure for MS 5P Chinese I Class (12/5/16)

Objectives: 1) I can showcase my mastery of sight reading multi-syllable phrase fluently and accurately. 2) I can ask and answer questions to confirm ownership of school supplies. 3) I can gain cultural knowledge about chinese school system.
Homework: 1) Review Review Sounds1 sentences #1-#5. 2) Lesson Five chapter test: Monday, 12/12/16. 3) Lesson Five oral exam: Tuesday, 12/13/16.  4) Review Sounds1 Test (SA): Wednesday, 12/14/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Joe, Michael, Casey, Nick) talk to Ms. Chang, please. Take one copy of Review Sounds1 handout. Review Sounds1 Audio file is attached in PB Resources link already. 2) Teach Review Sounds1 handout #1-#5. 3) Go over Conversation question pattern number #2.
2. While Ms. Chang conducts quiz #8 <=> 1) Culture reading (grade level..) w/exit slip.  2) Practice with your partner conversation questions + multi-syllable handout + review sounds1 handout.

 

Procedure for MS 7P Exploratory Chinese Class (12/5/16)

Objectives: 1) I can write simple Chinese number characters. 2) I can see what four treasures of study (calligraphy) are like.
Homework: 1) Review 20 learned characters. 2) Test #2: Wednesday, 12/7/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) Return Test #1 papers. 2) Review (17 characters). 3) Teach (十, 百, 零). Collect. 4) Audio file + Number rapping. 5) Tea tasting time. 6) Show and tell: Four Treasures Study.

 

Procedure for MS 8P Pre-Algebra Class (12/5/16)

Objectives: I can apply Pythagorean theorem to solve math problems.
Homework: 1) MathXL (Explaining the Pythagorean Theorem, 12 questions) is due tomorrow. 2) New i-Ready cycle: 12/5-12/11. 3) Turn in Unit #8 worksheet #1 today. 3) Unit #8 worksheet #N is due tomorrow. 4) Unit #8 Quiz: Friday, 12/9/16.
Procedure:
1. 1) (Sofia, Tommy) complete i-Ready diagnostic assessment, please. Return unit #7 quiz papers. 2) Pass out / go over your grade level diagnostic assessment result slip.

2. Seat work: 1) i-Ready. 2) MathXL. 3) Worksheets #1 + #2.

Front Page on December 5th, 2016